A catalytic function for the structurally conserved residue Phe 100 of ribonuclease T1.

TitleA catalytic function for the structurally conserved residue Phe 100 of ribonuclease T1.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1996
AuthorsDoumen, J., M. Gonciarz, I. Zegers, R. Loris, L. Wyns, and J. Steyaert
JournalProtein Sci
Volume5
Issue8
Pagination1523-30
Date Published1996 Aug
ISSN0961-8368
KeywordsCatalysis, Crystallization, Crystallography, X-Ray, Data Collection, DNA Primers, Kinetics, Mutagenesis, Site-Directed, Phenylalanine, Protein Binding, Protein Structure, Tertiary, Recombinant Proteins, Ribonuclease T1, Stereoisomerism, Structure-Activity Relationship, Thermodynamics
Abstract

The function of the conserved Phe 100 residue of RNase T1 (EC 3.1.27.3) has been investigated by site-directed mutagenesis and X-ray crystallography. Replacement of Phe 100 by alanine results in a mutant enzyme with kcat reduced 75-fold and a small increase in Km for the dinucleoside phosphate substrate GpC. The Phe 100 Ala substitution has similar effects on the turnover rates of GpC and its minimal analogue GpOMe, in which the leaving cytidine is replaced by methanol. The contribution to catalysis is independent of the nature of the leaving group, indicating that Phe 100 belongs to the primary site. The contribution of Phe 100 to catalysis may result from a direct van der Waals contact between its aromatic ring and the phosphate moiety of the substrate. Phe 100 may also contribute to the positioning of the pentacovalent phosphorus of the transition state, relative to other catalytic residues. If compared to the corresponding wild-type data, the structural implications of the mutation in the present crystal structure of Phe 100 Ala RNase T1 complexed with the specific inhibitor 2'-GMP are restricted to the active site. Repositioning of 2'-GMP, caused by the Phe 100 Ala mutation, generates new or improved contacts of the phosphate moiety with Arg 77 and His 92. In contrast, interactions with the Glu 58 carboxylate appear to be weakened. The effects of the His 92 Gln and Phe 100 Ala mutations on GpC turnover are additive in the corresponding double mutant, indicating that the contribution of Phe 100 to catalysis is independent of the catalytic acid His 92. The present results lead to the conclusion that apolar residues may contribute considerably to catalyze conversions of charged molecules to charged products, involving even more polar transition states.

DOI10.1002/pro.5560050808
Alternate JournalProtein Sci.
PubMed ID8844843
PubMed Central IDPMC2143497