|Title||Preparation of Proteoliposomes with Purified TMEM16 Protein for Accurate Measures of Lipid Scramblase Activity.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Brunner, J. D., and S. Schenck|
|Journal||Methods Mol Biol|
|Keywords||Anoctamins, Phospholipid Transfer Proteins, Proteolipids|
The distribution of different lipid species between the two leaflets is tightly regulated and underlies the concerted action of distinct catalytic entities. While flippases and floppases establish membrane asymmetry, scramblases randomize the lipid distribution and play pivotal roles during blood clotting, apoptosis, and in processes such as N-linked glycosylation of proteins. The recent discovery of TMEM16 family members acting as scramblases has led to an increasing demand for developing protocols tailored for TMEM16 proteins to enable functional investigations of their scrambling activity. Here we describe a protocol for the expression, purification, and functional reconstitution of TMEM16 proteins into preformed liposomes and measurement of their scrambling activity using fluorescence-labeled lipid derivatives. The reconstitution involves extrusion of liposomes through a membrane, destabilization of liposomes using Triton X-100, and stepwise detergent removal by adsorption on styryl-beads. The scrambling assay is based on the selective bleaching of nitrobenzoxadiazol fluorescent lipids on the outer leaflet of liposomes by the membrane-impermeant reducing agent sodium dithionite. The assay allows conclusions on the substrate specificity and on the kinetics of the transported lipids as shown with the example of a Ca-activated TMEM16 scramblase from the fungus Nectria haematococca (nhTMEM16).
|Alternate Journal||Methods Mol. Biol.|
Preparation of Proteoliposomes with Purified TMEM16 Protein for Accurate Measures of Lipid Scramblase Activity.