Subsite interactions of ribonuclease T1: viscosity effects indicate that the rate-limiting step of GpN transesterification depends on the nature of N.

TitleSubsite interactions of ribonuclease T1: viscosity effects indicate that the rate-limiting step of GpN transesterification depends on the nature of N.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1991
AuthorsSteyaert, J., L. Wyns, and P. Stanssens
JournalBiochemistry
Volume30
Issue35
Pagination8661-5
Date Published1991 Sep 3
ISSN0006-2960
KeywordsBase Composition, Binding Sites, Catalysis, Dinucleoside Phosphates, Esterification, Kinetics, Ribonuclease T1, RNA, Fungal, Substrate Specificity, Viscosity
Abstract

We report on the effect of the viscogenic agents glycerol and ficoll on the RNase T1 catalyzed turnover of GpA, GpC, GpU, and Torula yeast RNA. For wild-type enzyme, we find that the kcat/Km values for the transesterification of GpC and GpA as well as for the cleavage of RNA are inversely proportional to the relative viscosity of glycerol-containing buffers; no such effect is observed for the conversion of GpU to cGMP and U. The second-order rate constants for His40Ala and Glu46Ala RNase T1, two mutants with a drastically reduced kcat/km ratio, are independent of the microviscosity, indicating that glycerol does not affect the intrinsic kinetic parameters. Consistent with the notion that molecular diffusion rates are unaffected by polymeric viscogens, addition of ficoll has no effect on the kcat/Km for GpC transesterification by wild-type enzyme. The data indicate that the second-order rate constants for GpC, GpA, and Torula yeast RNA are at least partly limited by the diffusion-controlled association rate of substrate and active site; RNase T1 obeys Briggs-Haldane kinetics for these substrates (Km greater than Ks). Calculations suggest that the equilibrium dissociation constants (Ks) for the various GpN-wild-type enzyme complexes are virtually independent of N whereas the measured kcat values follow the order GpC greater than GpA greater than GpU. This is also revealed by the steady-state kinetic parameters of Tyr38Phe and His40Ala RNase T1, two mutants that follow simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics because of a dramatically reduced kcat value (i.e., Km = Ks).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Alternate JournalBiochemistry
PubMed ID1909570