Modification of human hemoglobin by glutathione. III. Perturbations of hemoglobin conformation analyzed by computer modeling.

TitleModification of human hemoglobin by glutathione. III. Perturbations of hemoglobin conformation analyzed by computer modeling.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1986
AuthorsWodak, S. J., J. L. De Coen, S. J. Edelstein, H. Demarne, and Y. Beuzard
JournalJ Biol Chem
Date Published1986 Nov 5
KeywordsBinding Sites, Computer Simulation, Cysteine, Glutathione, Hemoglobins, Humans, Hydrogen Bonding, Models, Molecular, Protein Binding, Protein Conformation

The perturbations of the conformation of human deoxyhemoglobin induced by the covalent attachment of glutathione at cysteine beta 93 have been investigated by computer simulation in conjunction with molecular graphics. In the first phase of the analysis, a systematic search was carried out of the conformational space of glutathione attached to deoxyhemoglobin. In this search, the conformation of the hemoglobin molecule was held constant, while the relative energies of a series of 186,624 glutathione conformations involving systematic variation of six dihedral angels were calculated. From this search, the most favorable conformation was selected as the starting conformation for energy minimization of the glutathionyl hemoglobin molecule as a function of all Cartesian coordinates. In order to provide a reference state, an independent minimization by the same procedures was carried out for deoxyhemoglobin in the absence of glutathione. Comparison of the minimized structures with and without glutathione attached revealed a number of significant differences. The most conspicuous difference in the protein moiety concerned the salt bridge between aspartate beta 94 and histidine beta 146 which is destabilized upon minimization of the glutathionyl-hemoglobin complex due to interactions of the aspartate residue with the glycyl NH group of glutathione. Other observed differences in the minimized structures are located at the alpha 1-beta 2 interface and include displacement of the carboxyl group of aspartate beta 99. In the minimized complex, the glutathione portion assumes a quasi-cyclic conformation stabilized through interactions between the free (gamma-glutamyl) amino and (glycyl) carboxyl ends of the tripeptide and between this carboxyl end and the epsilon amino group of lysine alpha 40. In a parallel conformational study of glutathione alone, a similar structure was found as the lowest energy form. These quasi-cyclic conformations contrast with the extended structures reported by Wright (Wright, W.B. (1955) Acta Crystallogr. 11, 632-642) for crystals of glutathione where interactions between molecules play a major role. The conclusions of our analysis are in agreement with the experimental investigations reported in the two preceding papers and permit, moreover, a coherent interpretation of the observed functional and structural changes in deoxyhemoglobin induced by glutathione.

Alternate JournalJ. Biol. Chem.
PubMed ID3771549